Resources / Blogs / Exploring the Largest Pension Transfers of All Time: Key Takeaways

Exploring the Largest Pension Transfers of All Time: Key Takeaways

Largest Pension Transfers of All Time

Corporate finance is not for the faint of heart. Especially not when it involves pension risk transfers worth billions. It’s a complex dance of assets and obligations. Each step is calculated. Every move counts.

In this article, we will step into this high-stakes arena and see how giants like General Motors (GM) and Verizon make bold plays. They are not just moving money; they are crafting futures.

This is the art of turning a looming liability into a managed asset. It’s about strategy, foresight, and securing retiree futures without sinking the ship.

This is where finance meets strategy at its most intense.

#1: General Motors’ $25.1 Billion Game-Changer

General Motors

In 2012, General Motors rewrote the playbook for corporate pension management. By transferring a staggering $25 billion in pension obligations to Prudential, GM secured its financial footing and pioneered a path that many others would follow in the years to come.

After its 2009 emergence from bankruptcy, General Motors was saddled with hefty pension liabilities that threatened its hard-won stability. The auto giant’s leadership recognized that a dramatic move was necessary to shield the company from the volatility of pension obligations and ensure its long-term financial health.

The deal between General Motors and Prudential was monumental. GM’s agreement involved transferring the pension responsibilities for 110,000 white-collar retirees, effectively shifting the burden from its own books to Prudential. This exchange was not merely a financial transaction but a strategic pivot, freeing GM from the intricacies of pension fund management.


  • On Retirees: The transition was seamless for retirees, with their pension benefits preserved under Prudential’s management, albeit without the backing of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.
  • On GM: This strategic move was met with applause from Wall Street, reflecting positively on GM’s stock prices and significantly lightening its financial liabilities.
  • Regulatory Aspect: Regulatory bodies closely monitored the transfer, ensuring that Prudential could manage these new responsibilities. Their approval not only validated the deal but also set regulatory precedents for future transactions.

Key Learnings and Takeaways:

General Motors’ approach to resolving its pension dilemma has offered multiple insights into how large corporations can handle similar challenges:

  • Proactive Risk Management: Corporations can mitigate significant financial risks by proactively rethinking pension obligations.
  • Strategic Partnerships: Collaborating with established financial entities like Prudential can provide stability and confidence to both the company and its beneficiaries.
  • Regulatory Navigation: Successful execution of such large-scale transfers requires careful navigation of regulatory landscapes, highlighting the importance of compliance and due diligence.

#2: IBM’s Strategic $16 Billion Pivot with Prudential and MetLife


In September 2022, IBM made a monumental decision by transferring $16 billion in pension liabilities to Prudential and MetLife, marking it as the second-largest pension risk transfer in U.S. history. 

As IBM shifted its focus towards high-growth areas like cloud computing and artificial intelligence, it recognized the need to reallocate resources from legacy burdens such as pension liabilities. The decision to reduce this financial weight was strategic, aimed at enhancing corporate agility and focusing on innovation.

Under the terms of the agreement, The Prudential Insurance Company of America and Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (MLIC), subsidiaries of Prudential Financial, Inc. and MetLife, Inc., respectively, assumed responsibility for 50% of the pension payments for about 100,000 IBM retirees each. Prudential was appointed as the lead administrator, with both insurers set to deliver pension payments starting January 1, 2023. MLIC’s liabilities under its group annuity contract were settled directly with Prudential.

IBM's Strategic $16 Billion Pivot with Prudential and MetLife


  • On IBM: This strategic divestiture significantly lightened IBM’s financial liabilities, boosting its ability to invest in and spearhead technological advancements.
  • On Retirees: The transition was engineered to be seamless, with Prudential and MetLife ensuring continuity in pension payments, thus preserving retiree trust and security.
  • On the Industry: This deal was not just a transaction but a bellwether for the pension risk transfer market, which saw record-breaking activity in 2022, with $48.3 billion in single premium buyout deals, far exceeding previous years.

Key Learnings and Takeaways:

The strategic implications of IBM’s pension transfer are manifold, offering a clear roadmap for other corporations aiming to balance legacy responsibilities with modern business imperatives.

  • Strategic Financial Management: Corporate giants can leverage financial strategies to realign resources towards more profitable and innovative areas.
  • Commitment to Service: The transition period in such transfers is crucial, requiring a commitment to service excellence to ensure stakeholder satisfaction.

#3: AT&T’s $8.1 Billion Pension Transfer to Athene Holdings


In a significant move towards financial streamlining, AT&T finalized an agreement to transfer $8.1 billion in U.S. pension plan liabilities to subsidiaries of Athene Holding

Facing the constant evolution of the telecommunications industry, AT&T sought to manage its extensive pension obligations effectively. This led to the decision to offload a substantial portion of these liabilities, allowing AT&T to better focus on its core business challenges and opportunities.

AT&T agreed to purchase group annuity contracts from Athene Annuity & Life Co. and Athene Annuity & Life Assurance Co. of New York. This arrangement, detailed in a 10-Q filing with the SEC, involves no further contributions from AT&T, as the purchase is funded by existing plan assets. The transaction is set to secure the pension benefits for about 96,000 participants and beneficiaries starting in August, following the closure of the deal.


  • On AT&T: The transaction effectively removes $8.1 billion in pension liabilities from AT&T’s books, enhancing its financial profile and operational flexibility.
  • On Retirees: Athene will manage the pension benefits of approximately 96,000 AT&T retirees and beneficiaries, ensuring continued payment without disruption.

Key Learnings and Takeaways:

AT&T’s $8.1 billion pension risk transfer to Athene Holdings is decisive in managing its pension liabilities.

  • Effective Liability Management: Large-scale pension risk transfers are crucial for companies seeking to reduce financial risk and improve balance sheet health.
  • Retiree Benefit Security: Transitioning pension management to specialized firms can assure continuous and reliable benefit payments to retirees.
  • Financial Strategy: Utilizing existing plan assets to fund such transactions shows a strategic approach to managing available resources without additional financial burden.
  • Industry Trends: The growing involvement of insurance companies in pension management illustrates a significant shift in how corporations handle long-term liabilities.

#4: Verizon’s $7.5 Billion Pension Transfer to Prudential


In October 2021, Verizon announced a major initiative to manage its pension obligations by transferring approximately $7.5 billion in pension liabilities to Prudential Financial. This strategic maneuver was part of a broader aim to secure its financial stability and ensure the welfare of approximately 41,000 management retirees.

Verizon engaged in this significant transaction to handle a substantial portion of its nearly $30 billion in outstanding pension obligations. 

The agreement involved Verizon’s Management Pension Plan purchasing a group annuity contract from The Prudential Insurance Company of America. Under this contract, Prudential assumed the obligation to make future pension payments, which were guaranteed to match the retirees’ previous pension benefits. The transaction specifically targeted U.S. management pension benefits and did not affect current management employees, those who retired after January 1, 2010, or union-represented employees and retirees.


  • On Verizon: This transaction significantly lightened Verizon’s financial load by offloading pension liabilities, which enhances its financial profile and operational flexibility.
  • On Retirees: The 41,000 affected retirees will see no change in their monthly pension benefits, with Prudential taking over the responsibility for these payments. The group annuity contract includes Prudential’s irrevocable commitment to upholding these obligations.
  • On the Industry: This deal showcases a strategic shift towards engaging highly rated insurers like Prudential, known for their capacity to manage large pension liabilities and extensive experience in providing annuity benefits to millions of workers and retirees nationwide.

Key Learnings and Takeaways:

  • Commitment to Retiree Security: The detailed planning and execution of the transfer guarantees the continuity of benefits for retirees, reflecting Verizon’s commitment to its former employees.
  • Financial Strategy: The transaction helps Verizon improve its financial standing by reducing long-term liabilities and associated risks.

#5: Lockheed Martin’s $4.3 Billion Pension Risk Transfer to Athene Holding


In a strategic financial maneuver announced in August 2021, Lockheed Martin secured the future of its pension obligations by transferring approximately $4.9 billion in pension liabilities to Athene Holding Ltd. This significant deal involved pension obligations for about 18,000 U.S. retirees and beneficiaries who are currently receiving benefits.

Lockheed Martin, an aerospace and defense industry leader, faced the challenge of managing sizable pension obligations. This transaction marks the second such deal with Athene, following an earlier $800 million pension risk transfer in 2018.

The transaction was executed by purchasing group annuity contracts from Athene’s subsidiaries, Athene Annuity and Life Company (AAIA) and Athene Annuity & Life Assurance Company of New York (AANY), using assets from Lockheed Martin’s master retirement trust. Importantly, this transfer did not require any additional funding contributions from Lockheed Martin, demonstrating the health of the existing pension fund. Athene began administering and disbursing the pension benefits starting January 1, 2023.


  • On Lockheed Martin: The company recognized a non-cash, non-operating settlement charge of approximately $1.5 billion due to the transaction, reflecting the accelerated recognition of actuarial losses.
  • On Retirees: The retirees and beneficiaries involved are assured of the continuation of their benefits with no changes to the payout amounts. They are now backed by the State Guaranty Association protections based on their state of residence.
  • Legal Challenges: Recent legal actions have brought additional scrutiny to Lockheed Martin’s decision to partner with Athene for its pension risk transfers. In a lawsuit filed by former pension plan participants, the plaintiffs allege that Lockheed Martin breached its fiduciary duty under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) by selecting Athene, which they claim was not the “safest” annuity provider available, due to concerns related to its private equity ownership by Apollo Global Management.

Key Learnings and Takeaways:

  • Foolproof Due Diligence: It’s crucial for businesses to conduct comprehensive due diligence on potential annuity providers. This includes scrutinizing their financial health, investment strategies, ownership structure, and any potential conflicts of interest that could impact their ability to meet long-term obligations.
  • Understand Regulatory Compliance: Businesses must ensure their chosen provider complies with all relevant regulations, such as ERISA guidelines in the U.S., which mandate selecting the “safest available” annuity provider to safeguard retiree benefits. Understanding and adhering to these guidelines is crucial to avoid legal challenges.

#6: Bristol-Myers Squibb’s $3.8 Billion Pension Plan Termination


On December 4, 2018, Bristol-Myers Squibb announced a comprehensive strategy to terminate its U.S. pension plan, involving a total of $3.8 billion in pension obligations.

The termination plan included distributing lump-sum payments to participating members who opted for this payout, with the remainder of the obligations being settled through the purchase of a group annuity contract from Athene Annuity and Life Company. This decision followed the company’s move in 2009 to freeze the pension plan, aiming to further reduce future financial risk and administrative burdens.

The plan affected 4,800 active participants, 1,400 retirees and their beneficiaries currently receiving benefits, and 18,000 former employees who had not yet initiated their benefits.

#7: FedEx’s $6 Billion Pension Transfer to Metropolitan Life


In May 2018, FedEx Corp. announced a significant pension risk transfer, delegating approximately $6 billion of its U.S. pension plan obligations to Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. This strategic move involved the pension benefits for about 41,000 FedEx retirees and beneficiaries.

FedEx purchased a group annuity contract from Metropolitan Life, effectively transferring the responsibility for pension payments to the insurer. This transaction, expected to close on May 10, 2018, aimed to secure and stabilize pension benefits for the affected participants without altering the amount of their benefits.

Financial Strategy and Impact:

  • On FedEx: The transfer significantly reduced FedEx’s pension liabilities, aligning with its strategy to manage future pension costs more effectively. As part of this transaction, FedEx anticipated recognizing a one-time non-cash pension settlement charge in its fiscal 2018 financials.
  • On Retirees: Retirees will continue to receive their existing pension benefits, now administered by Metropolitan Life, with the added security provided by the State Guaranty Association based on their residence state.

This approach reflects FedEx’s commitment to financial stewardship and its strategic fiscal management, which includes significant voluntary contributions to its pension plans in recent years.

Most Important Lessons For Businesses

Navigating the intricate dance of pension risk transfers isn’t just about moving numbers. Here are the key lessons businesses need to master in the PRT space:

  • Assess and Mitigate Risks Proactively: Businesses must evaluate their long-term liabilities and take preemptive steps to manage risks. This involves understanding the full scope of pension obligations and considering pension risk transfers as a strategic option to stabilize finances.
  • Choose the Right Partners: Selecting a reputable and financially stable insurance partner is critical. The chosen insurer should have a strong track record in managing large pension liabilities and providing reliable annuity payments.
  • Understand Regulatory Implications: Businesses should navigate the complex regulatory environment carefully. Compliance with legal requirements and understanding the protections offered by institutions like the State Guaranty Association are essential for successful pension risk transfers.
  • Communicate Transparently with Stakeholders: Effective communication with all stakeholders, including retirees and employees, is crucial. Businesses should provide clear, detailed information about how pension risk transfers will affect their pension benefits to maintain trust and manage expectations.
  • Maintain Financial Health: The primary goal of a pension risk transfer should be to enhance the company’s financial stability without undermining the benefits owed to retirees. This balance is essential for sustaining the company’s reputation and operational capabilities.
  • Monitor Market Trends and Opportunities: Staying informed about trends in the pension risk transfer market can provide insights into when to initiate a transfer. The timing of a PRT can significantly impact its effectiveness and financial outcomes.
  • Leverage Financial Innovations: Companies should consider innovative financial solutions like strategic capital vehicles to support the completion of significant transactions. These tools can provide flexibility and additional financial leverage.
  • Plan for Long-Term Impact: Businesses should assess the long-term impacts of pension risk transfers not just on their balance sheets but also on their overall corporate strategy and employee relations.


As we conclude our exploration, it is clear that these are not mere financial transactions — they are lessons in corporate foresight. 

The learnings are manifold and profound. These transfers teach us that managing massive financial obligations requires more than just economic acumen—it demands a visionary approach. Companies that succeed are those that anticipate the horizon and maneuver before the storm hits, not just for their bottom line, but for the people whose lives depend on these decisions.

Looking to transform your PRT workflows with AI?

Scribble Data's custom built AI Assistants help you drive 10x efficiency in your PRT workflows with seamless integration. Talk to our experts and find out how, today!

Learn more

Related Blogs

May 23, 2024

Role of Multimodal AI in Financial Services: A Comprehensive Guide

“What is now proved was once only imagined,” wrote William Blake. Today, this paradigm is no longer confined to the artistic or poetic. It is the mantra of technological innovation in finance. The leap from traditional banking to digital platforms was significant, but the advent of immersive AI like GPT-4o and the Metaverse promises a […]

Read More
May 16, 2024

OpenAI Launches GPT-4o: Exploring Future Use Cases and Opportunities

There are only three AIs everyone talks about. HAL 9000, Samantha from Her, and Terminator’s Skynet. They are all from movies and shape how people think about AI. They limit our imagination, not expand it. But GPT-4o is different. It’s not science fiction. It’s real, and it’s here. GPT-4o talks, listens, and understands. You can […]

Read More
May 9, 2024

Plan Termination vs Lift-outs in Pension Risk Transfer: A Complete Guide

Picture this – you’ve worked for a company for decades, diligently contributing to your pension plan, counting on it to secure your retirement. You have attended countless seminars and workshops, poring over statements and projections, all pointing to a comfortable post-work life. But what happens when your employer decides to terminate the plan or lift […]

Read More